French Winograd Schemas

A collection of French Winograd Schemas

by Pascal Amsili and Olga Seminck

We present here a collection of Winograd Schemas in French, adapted from the original collection of English schemas proposed by Levesque et alii.

A Winograd schema is a pair of sentences which differ only in one word (or expression) and wich contain a pronoun that is resolved in opposite ways in the two sentences. The resolution of the pronoun should be effortless for humans and require world knowledge and a reasoning competence.

The schema takes its name from a well-known example by Terry Winograd:

  • The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because they [feared/advocated] violence.

If the word is ``feared'', then ``they'' presumably refers to the city council; if it is ``advocated'' then ``they'' presumably refers to the demonstrators.

The collection proposed here was adapted from the original collection in English, and some details about the adaptation process can be found in this paper (Coreference Resolution Beyond OntoNotes (CORBON 2017).


  • Amsili P and Seminck O (2017), "A Google-Proof Collection of French Winograd Schemas", In Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Coreference Resolution Beyond OntoNotes (CORBON 2017). Valencia, April, 2017, pp. 24-29. Association for Computational Linguistics. paper, slides
  • Amsili P and Seminck O (2017), "Schémas Winograd en français: une étude statistique et comportementale", Actes de TALN 2017 (Traitement automatique des langues naturelles), Orléans, June, 2017. paper.
  • Seminck O, Segonne V and Amsili P (2019), Modèles de langue appliqués aux schémas Winograd français. Actes de la conférence TALN 2019. paper


Thanks to Sarah Ghumundee, Biljana Knežević, Nicolas Bénichou, Lara Perinetti, Yann Castellvi, Léonard Fromont, Pierre-Louis Lugiery, Diana Khabarova, Jiaqi Chang, Pauline Bossard, Patricia Roze, Victoriane Djaroudi, Jonas Noblet, Ward El Mouna Belarbi, Léopold Irion-Dewavrin, Emma Dubois.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.